Dota 2 is a multiplayer multiplayer online battle team arena multiplayer team game developed by Valve Corporation. The game is a continuation of DotA – a custom modification card for Warcraft III: Reign of Chaos and Warcraft III: The Frozen Throne additions. The game depicts a battle on a special kind of map; Each game involves two teams of five players controlling the “heroes” – characters with different sets of abilities. To win the match, the team must destroy the special “fortress” object belonging to the enemy side and protect its own “fortress” from destruction. Dota 2 works on a free-to-play model with elements of micropayments.
Game development began in 2009, when Valve took on the work of the main developer of DotA – IceFrog, and in the summer of 2010 filed an application for registration of this trademark. October 13, 2010 on the game portal Game Informer, the game was announced for release in 2011. August 15, 2011 in the official blog was published trailer for the game. Dota 2 was released in July 2013 after two years in beta testing.
Dota 2 was originally released on the Source game engine, after which in 2015 it was ported to Source 2, becoming the first game running on it. Dota 2 provides the ability to create custom game modes, design cards and cosmetic items for heroes, and then add them to Dota 2 using the Steam Workshop. Dota 2 is one of the most popular games on Steam and received generally positive reviews from critics for the gameplay, the quality of production and the preservation of the positive aspects of its predecessor. Among the main drawbacks of the game was the difficulty of learning.
Dota 2 is an active cyber discipline in which professional teams from all over the world compete in various leagues and tournaments. Premium Dota 2 tournaments have prize pools of millions of dollars, which have repeatedly become the largest in the history of eSports. The largest tournament in the game – The International, held annually by Valve. Since the 2017/18 season, Valve has also been organizing the Dota Pro Circuit, a professional season held throughout the year. Large professional Dota 2 tournaments are broadcast on video streaming services, sometimes gaining over a million viewers simultaneously. People playing Dota 2 are often called “doters”
Dota 2 is a multiplayer MOBA game (“multiplayer online battle arena”) in which two teams of five players fight each other. The game involves two teams of five people. One team plays for the bright side, the other for the dark side. The ultimate goal of each match is to destroy the enemy “fortress”, a special object belonging to the enemy, and to protect its own fortress. Like Defense of the Ancients, Dota 2 uses mouse and keyboard controls, similar to controls in real-time strategies, and a distance view simulating an isometric view.
Each of the ten participants of the match controls one character, which is called a hero; Players choose heroes from an extensive list, and each hero has his own recognizable appearance, strengths and weaknesses. During the match, the player performs a certain role, such as “Kerry” (Eng. Carry) or “Support” (Eng. Support), and the characters may be better suited for this or that role according to their characteristics. During the match, the hero can get experience points, earn gold, buy and collect items that enhance it or provide additional abilities. “Kerry” is relatively weak at the beginning of the match, but as experience points gain, they gain access to abilities that enable them to easily defeat enemies and ultimately achieve victory for the whole team. “Support” abilities allow you to help friends – for example, restore lost health points. If the hero’s health points are reduced to zero — for example, an enemy hero overcomes him in battle — the hero is considered “lost” for some short time; at the end of this time, the hero reappears next to the fortress, and the player controlling it can resume the game. The destruction of an enemy hero brings his winner a large number of experience points.
Each match takes place on a square map of a special type, where the fortresses of both teams are in opposite corners, and the players are distributed along the lines connecting these fortresses. In addition to the players themselves, the game accepts computer-controlled creatures, “creeps” and fixed structures — “towers,” their own on each side; they also participate in the battle, attacking enemy heroes, creeps and enemy towers and thereby helping “their” team. The fog of war, covering most of the map, does not allow players to follow the movements of the enemy
The history of the Dota game series began in 2003 with the Defense of the Ancients (DotA), a custom modification for Warcraft III: Reign of Chaos, created by the developer with the pseudonym Eul. Supplement for Warcraft III called The Frozen Throne was released later that year. Modifications of the Defense of the Ancients series for the new addition competed in popularity. DotA: Allstars, developed by Steve Fick with the pseudonym Guinsoo, and Fick together with his friend Steve Mescon created the official website of the Defense of the Ancients community and DotA-Allstars, LLC. When Fick stopped work on DotA: Allstars in 2005, his friend with the pseudonym IceFrog became the game designer of the game. The popularity of Defense of the Ancients has increased significantly, the modification was one of the most well-known in the world, and by 2008 it had become an e-sports discipline. In May 2009, as a result of a quarrel with Mescon, IceFrog opened a new community site at playdota.com.
Valve’s interest in owning Defense of the Ancients began when several experienced employees of the company, including Team Fortress designer Robin Volcker, became fans of the modification and played an active role in it. Valve contacted IceFrog via email with the intention of finding out about his future plans for the game, and subsequently hired him to guide the development of the DotA continuation. IceFrog first announced this in October 2009 on its blog. Dota 2 was announced on Game Informer in October 2010. The announcement of the upcoming release led to a sharp rise in interest in the game and caused an overload and failure of Game Informer servers.
The name “Dota” was borrowed by Valve from the acronym of the original modification as the name of the recently acquired franchise. Employee Eric Johnson argued that the name refers to the concept of the game, as it is used in everyday speech, and is not an acronym. Soon after the announcement, Dota 2 Valve applied for a trademark called Dota. In 2011, Gamescom CEO Gabe Newell commented on this, explaining that the trademark was needed to develop a sequel with an already easily recognizable name. Having made Dota a public domain name, Fick and Meskon registered the opposing “DOTA” trademark on behalf of DotA-Allstars, LLC, which later became a subsidiary of Riot Games in August 2010. Blizzard Entertainment Vice President Rob Pardo similarly stated that the name DotA belonged to the community of modification players. Blizzard acquired DotA-Allstars, LLC from Riot Games and in November 2011 filed objections to Valve, citing Blizzard’s title to both Warcraft III World Editor and DotA-Allstars, LLC, as a reasonable basis for claiming ownership franchisee The conflict was resolved in May 2012; Commercial use rights of the “Dota” trademark were retained by Valve, and non-commercial use of the name by third parties was permitted.
The early goal of the Dota 2 development team was to adapt the Defense of the Ancients art style to the Source game engine. The light and dark side replaced the names of the parties «Guardians» and «Scourge». The names of the characters, abilities, artifacts and design of the card from the modification were largely preserved in Dota 2, with some changes in connection with the trademarks owned by Blizzard. In the first meeting during the questions and answers on the topic Dota 2 IceFrog said that the game should be based on modifications and not have major changes compared to its predecessor. To help create a new game, Valve hired important and contributing members of the Defense of the Ancients community, including Eul and artist Kendrick Lima. Additional contributions from sources outside of Valve were also periodically used in Dota 2 to continue the tradition of developing Defense of the Ancients with the participation of the player community. One of the composers of Warcraft III: Reign of Chaos, Jason Hayes, and Tim Larkin were hired to co-create the Dota 2 soundtrack. Half-Life writer Mark Leidlow, Ted Kosmatka, science fiction writer, and Steam support staff member Chris Katz, created biographies of heroes. Nolan North, Dave Fennoy, John St. John, Ellen MacLaine, Merle Dandridge, John Patrick Lowry and others took part in the scoring of Dota 2 in English.
The Source engine received an update that includes a number of innovations to adapt to Dota 2, such as high-quality fabric modeling and improved lighting. The functionality of the game is the integration with the Steam client, allowing you to interact with the Dota 2 community and synchronize your personal settings using the cloud storage. The game also contains elements of virtual sports and exchangeable collection cards, modeled on traditional sports and showcasing professional Dota 2 players. In November 2013, Valve added a training system to the game, allowing you to give hints to other players using special in-game tools. As in previous Valve multiplayer games, players have the opportunity to watch Dota 2 matches live; LAN support allows local competitions. Some of these competitions are also available for viewing through the purchase of virtual tickets in the in-game store, giving the opportunity to watch live shows on the current matches and watch replays of completed matches. A portion of all ticket-related sales goes to event organizers. Players also have the opportunity to watch the matches in virtual reality mode, added in an update in July 2016. The update also included a showcase of heroes, allowing players to look at any character and his life-size cosmetic items in virtual reality mode
Dota 2 includes a matchmaking system based on a numerical value known as game selection rating. Rating changes are based on the outcome of the match: if a player’s team wins, its rating increases, if defeated, it decreases. Dota 2 servers, known as the game coordinator, use a team balancing mechanism based on the rating of each player to create conditions under which teams have approximately equal chances of winning in all matches. In Dota 2, there is a system for selecting matches by rating, which differ from ordinary ones by the generally available rating value, divided into single and group ratings, creating conditions for players who want to play in a more competitive environment. Players with the highest game selection rankings are listed by Valve in a regularly updated leaderboard, including the top 200 players in each region. The game also includes a complaint system that allows you to punish players, the game with which brings negative impressions. The presence of this system in advance prevents abusive and defiant behavior of players. Other features of Dota 2 include an enhanced replay system compared to Defense of the Ancients, which allows you to download replays from the game client and view them later; a system of hero assemblies that makes it possible to use the guides (assemblies) created by the community of players during a match. Assembling the hero points to the player on the artifacts that must be purchased for his hero, as well as on the order of learning abilities.
In April 2012, Gabe Newell announced the distribution of Dota 2 on the model of free-to-play; The cornerstone of the game’s development was to be contributed by the community of players. In June of the same year, the Dota 2 development team announced that the entire list of heroes and artifacts in the game would be available to every player for free. Instead, the game is monetized in an in-game store, which presents exclusively cosmetic virtual items for Dota 2 heroes, such as clothes and weapons. Prior to the official release of the game in 2013, players had the opportunity to purchase a set of games in early access, containing the game Dota 2 and several cosmetic items. Included as additional downloadable content, Dota 2 Workshop Tools allow users to independently create cosmetic items for heroes, as well as custom game modes and map design. Validated in the Steam Workshop community content after making it Valve becomes available for purchase in the in-game store. This model was improved by Valve compared to the same in Team Fortress 2, which by June 2011 brought the creators of cosmetic items for this game over 3.5 million dollars. In January 2014, Newell published information that, on average, content creators of the Steam Workshop for Team Fortress 2 and Dota 2 had earned about $ 15,000 from selling their items in the previous year. According to the data of the research group of virtual gaming trading platforms SuperData, in 2015 sales of virtual goods in Dota 2 brought Valve a profit of $ 238 million